Tuesday, January 21, 2020

A Comparison of Sei Shonagon and Marie de France Essay -- comparison c

A Comparison of Sei Shonagon and Marie de France         Though more than two hundred years have separated Sei Shonagon and Marie de France, the scene is much the same. A courtly lady sits in a candle-lit room, with her writing hand poised above a book of parchment. Her face brightens in an instant of inspiration and she scribbles furiously onto the paper. This woman is closely associated with the royal court and is something of an anachronism, a woman author in a male-dominated world. The scene pictured here could have taken place in either Shonagon's late tenth century Japan or the twelfth century France of Marie de France. The differences that exist between these two authors are a result of their differing cultures and personalities. Marie de France writes as a product of her time, expressing herself through her characters, while keeping in mind the mandates of the church. Sei Shonagon is ruled by no such mandates and as a result wrote with merciless honesty. Accordingly, the structure, diction and imagery used by each author r eflects her own distinct personality and values.    Sei Shonagon is most well known for her Pillow Book, a collection of her personal thoughts and observations during her time at court. The structure, or lack thereof, in this work gives the reader a peek at Shonagon's personality. She writes in short bursts, giving the mini-chapters such titles as "The Sliding Screen in the Back of the Hall," "Hateful Things," and "Oxen Should Have Very Small Foreheads." The titles are representative of her tendency to write at length on subjects that may seem inconsequential, or as the author admits in the last segment of the Pillow Book, "most trivial." In fact, these so-called trivial observations provide a s... ...es and cultures. One author is governed by her strict faith and adherence to the church, the other by her own strongly-held opinions. Each woman's writing clearly reflects her own distinct personality and temperament: Marie de France, more eager and spiritual, Sei Shonagon, more satirical and opinionated. Both courtly ladies seem faithful to their own beliefs and reflective of their time and culture.       Works Cited    Sei Shonagon. The Pillow Book. Trans. Richard Bowring. The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Expanded Edition. Ed. Maynard Mack. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1995. 2191-2218. All quotations are from this text.    De France, Marie. "Eliduc". Trans. John Fowles. The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Expanded Edition. Ed. Maynard Mack. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. 1995. 1680-1692. All quotations are from this text.   

Monday, January 13, 2020

Stolen Valor Act

Why can't we try to deter willful misrepresentations of fact by a modest fine, at least, if they create direct harm to others? Lies to those evaluating your credentials may do direct harm to others. If one lies to gain a job, something which seems to happen with increasing frequency, isn’t it a direct harm to others? Or, how about false representing as having received any credentials for something? The Stolen Valor Act of 2005, signed into law by President George W. Bush on December 20, 2006,[1] was a U. S. law that broadened the provisions of previous U. S. aw addressing the unauthorized wear, manufacture, or sale of any military decorations and medals. The law made it a federal misdemeanor to falsely represent oneself as having received any U. S. military decoration or medal. If convicted, defendants might have been imprisoned for up to six months, unless the decoration lied about is the Medal of Honor, in which case imprisonment could have been up to one year (Wikipedia). I personally don’t have any family members in the military, but I know friends who are in the military and I know they would be highly offended if someone falsely represented themselves to be a member of the military.Those men and women who serve our country risk their lives and have put work into whatever credentials they have earned and it is a great disrespect for anyone to falsely give oneself credit for something they have not earned. The purpose of the Act was to strengthen the provisions of federal law by broadening its scope and strengthening penalties. Specific new provisions in the Act included: †¢granting more authority to federal law enforcement officers; †¢broadening the law to cover false claims whereas previously an overt act had to be committed; †¢covering the mailing and shipping of medals; and protecting the reputation and meaning of military heroism medals. The Act made it illegal for unauthorized persons to wear, buy, sell, barter, trade, or manufacture â€Å"any decoration or medal authorized by Congress for the armed forces of the United States, or any of the service medals or badges awarded to the members of such forces. † In the 18 months after the act was enacted, the Chicago Tribune estimated there were twenty prosecutions. The number increased as awareness of the law spread (Wikipedia).The number of prosecutions continued to increase. Therefore, it was very clear that this was a tremendous issue and that the Stolen Valor Act was serving its purpose. Unfortunately, the majority disagreed saying that there is no proof that lying about medals degrades the value and honor of those who have actually earned those medals. Who could possibly agree to this? Well, government lawyers argued that lies about military medals are false statements that have no value and hence no first Amendment protection.On Thursday September 13, 2012, the U. S. House of Representatives passed a new version of the Stolen Valor Act. The f irst version of the Stolen Valor Act was struck down by the Supreme Court as a violation of the First Amendment. The bill focuses not on people who lie about having medals they didn't earn, but on any profits they make from lying about the medals, which is essentially criminal fraud. Rep. Joe Heck (R-Nevada) sponsored the new bill. His office issued a release saying the bill passed by a vote of 410-3.Heck said in a floor speech that the bill would survive judicial review because it resolves the â€Å"constitutional issues by clearly defining that the objective of the law is to target and punish those who misrepresent the alleged service with the intent of profiting personally or financially. † The bill targets those who falsely claim to have earned certain major military decorations, including the Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross, Navy Cross, Air Force Cross, Silver Star, Purple Heart or a medal signifying you served in combat (CNNPolitics).In 2007, there was a cas e against a man named Xavier Alvarez who was an elected member of the Three Valleys Municipal Water District Board in Pomona, California. Alvarez said at a public water district board meeting that he was a retired Marine, had been â€Å"wounded many times,† and had been â€Å"awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor† in 1987(NBCNews). However, he never served in the United States armed forces. Alvarez argued that his false statements were protected by the first Amendment right of free speech.Regardless, of his freedom of speech or anyone’s, no one should be giving the right to lie about something so serious especially, if it dishonors the men and women who serve for us and our country. I believe that there should be a law protecting military members against people like Alvarez. Unfortunately, the majority opinion by Justice Anthony Kennedy said, â€Å"The remedy for speech that is false is speech that is true. This is the ordinary course in a free society. He a lso quoted from the famous dissent by Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes in the 1919 Abrams decision: â€Å"The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market. Some false statements are inevitable if there is to be an open and vigorous expression of views in public and private conversation, expression the First Amendment seeks to guarantee† (NBCNews). Kennedy might have a point, but I strongly disagree and believe it is unethical period.Moreover, the government shouldn’t allow anyone to make false statements of any kind if it disrespects their country and their people. This act has definitely been a long debate for some of us with reasoned arguments on both sides. In my view it’s unethical and it should have not been struck down by the Supreme Court. Yes, we live in a country with freedom of speech, but this has abused such privilege. So why not punish someone when they’ve abused such privilege?

Saturday, January 4, 2020

A Brief Account on Andre Lefevere’s Manipulation Theory

A Brief Account on Andre Lefevere’s Manipulation Theory Abstract: In 1990s,there was a wave breakthrough in translation theory made by Andre Lefevere and Susan Bassnett. They went beyond the word-to-word or text level in translation studies and developed it to culture studies, later termed by Mary Snell-Hornby as ‘cultural turn’. This article mainly deals with one kind of culture turn put forward by Andre Lefevere, that is, translation as rewriting. ä ¸ ­Ã¥â€º ½Ã¨ ® ºÃ¦â€"‡ç ½â€˜ http://www.xzbu.com/5/view-2131279.htm Key Words: cultural turn; rewriting; ideology; patronage; poetics ä ¸ ­Ã¥â€º ¾Ã¥Ë†â€ Ã§ ± »Ã¥  ·: I06æâ€"‡çÅ' ®Ã¦  â€¡Ã¨ ¯â€ Ã§   :D æâ€"‡ç «  Ã§ ¼â€"Ã¥  ·:1006-026X(2009)-14-0168-02 1. Introduction In the year 1990,after the publishing of the book named Translation, History and Culture†¦show more content†¦There are two main factors that manipulate the literature, one is within the literary system and the other is outside it. As for the former one, it refers to the professionals within the literary system which include critics and reviewers (whose comments affect the reception of a work), teachers (who often decide whether a book is studied or not) and translators themselves. With regard to translators themselves, Fitzgerald is a good example. He has successfully translated the Persian poem Rubaiyat written by Omar Khayyam. Rubaiyat is a love poem composed of quatrains which makes it ve ry difficult to translate. Fitzgerald has translated it so beautifully that his translation was accepted by a large number of English speakers. Thus, Rubaiyat come into English literature. And Fitzgerald’s translated version is widely considered to be superior to the source text. As for the latter one, it refers to patronage outside the literary system. Patrons may be an influential, powerful individual in a given historical era and groups of people, which include publishers, the media, a political class or party, and institutions which regulate the distribution of literature and literary ideas. These are â€Å"the powers that can further and hinder the reading, writing, and

Friday, December 27, 2019

Aversive Effects of Ethanol in Adolescent vs. Adult Rats

Researchers Nicole L. Schramm-Sapyta, Alexandra DiFeliceantonio, and Cynthia M. Kuhn (2010), conducted the study of Aversive Effects of Ethanol in Adolescent vs. Adult Rats, looking to address two key questions: Number one, do reduced aversive effects of ethanol in younger rats correlate with increased ethanol consumption? and second, are the reduced aversive effects in adolescents attributable to reduced sensitivity to ethanols physiological effects? A sample of adolescent and adult male CD rats (outbred Sprague-Dawley derived strain) were obtained from Charles River Laboratories (Raleigh, NC), and maintained in a temperature vivarium standard of 12:12 light-dark cycle throughout the experiement. Before the experiment could begin, it was vital to find out which of the 94 rats formed a conditioned taste for ethanol, this was achieved with aversion therapy whereby the rats were deprived of water for 24 hours, and then given 15 minute acccess to a water bottle the next day, this was then repeated but the water was replaced with 0.2% saccharin solution and also injected with ethanol. After another water deprived 24 hours, the rats had access to two bottles, one containing water and the other with 0.2% saccharin solution. The dependent measure was the percent of saccharin consumption on the test day thus the rats that consumed less than 1ml of total solution were excluded from the experiemnt, leaving the researchers

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Reflection Of The Glass - 1618 Words

Grace to you and Peace from God, our Father, and His Son, who is the Risen Christ. Have you ever caught your reflection in a piece of glass? You can be looking at something through a window and the light changes or you move slightly and suddenly you catch sight of yourself, right there in the middle of the outside picture. Over the coming weeks, our second readings will come from Paul s letter to the Romans. Though Paul had never been to Rome, he hopes to visit there on his way to Spain. Actually he is hoping that the Roman Christians will help finance his mission to Spain to spread the gospel of Jesus Christ. So he writes a letter that gives these Christians a glimpse of the greater story of God, hoping that when they hear God s†¦show more content†¦God brings us through the waters of baptism, breaking sin s power over us. Once through the waters of the Red Sea, God led the Israelites into the wilderness – a place where Pharaoh had no power over them. Though God was with them, they had not yet arrived in the promised land. Through the bapti smal waters, God leads us to a place where sin no longer has dominion over us. Though God is with us, we have not received the fullness of our resurrected life still to come. Paul explains that Baptism is not an event, nor simply between an individual and God. Baptism unites us with Christ and through Christ, connects the baptized with all of the faithful for all time. Baptism is not simply a family celebration. In fact, our union with Christ may cause discord in those same families. Baptism is not a magical protection spell. Instead, it sets us on the path of the cross. Most shocking, though we look at Baptism as a celebration of life; it is actually a drowning. In Baptism we die to sin. Yet through our union with Christ s death, we are also united with his resurrection and made â€Å"alive to God in Christ Jesus.† Dead to sin and alive to God in Christ Jesus? Yes, that is what you are. 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Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Strategic Analysis of EBay for Pioneer In The Online Marketing

Question: Discuss about the Strategic Analysis of EBay for Pioneer In The Online Marketing? Answer: Executive Summary IT is very fast and is developing at a very high pace some people have taken a great advantage of IT industry. EBay is also one of the industries which have taken the advantage of IT to the fullest. EBay has been using IT to make money and to create value for its customers. EBay is one of the biggest and the well known online auction industry. It has its main objective to enable commerce through auctions.(Trefis. (2015)) The industry started flourishing in late nineties. EBay was founded by a computer programmer named Pierre Omidyar. The mission statement of EBay includes providing a trading platform where it is possible to trade for any person. Millions of people trade on EBay everyday and EBay earns commission for every transaction made from the sellers. EBay charges only the sellers and not the buyers by doing so it makes sure that the buyers are not concerted or tensed about the accidental charges. Basically there are two major problems that are faced by EBay. The first issue tha t the company faces is the competition and it is obvious because every company has to face the problem of competition now and then. The various competitors of EBay include Yahoo! Auctions and Overstock.com.(Hodsgon (2014)) Following points are addressed in the report: Vision and mission statement of the company External Environmental analysis Internal Environmental analysis Basis of competitive strategy Strategic Choice Corporate Objectives It is a for-profit company so the basic objective of EBay could be to increase its revenue. For achieving this objective the company directs its strategies to attract new users and increase its customer base. The company puts alluring regulations for example its lowers the fees of the listing items , offers discounts and incentives to its customers which helps in bringing more customers to its site. (Luthge (2004))The other objective of the company is to increase the gross merchandise volume and the value of different transactions which are conducted by the users. Further the company has big plans so that it can achieve the leading positions in the fast technology and network traded environment. The mission of EBay is continuous e-commerce site which is expanded on trusted and is motivated by various objectives. The mission of the company is to create a new global place for carrying out online payments for this it has incorporated with various sites like PayPal. PayPal has created a new standard for trustful online payments. External Analysis Macroeconomic Analysis: In order to know the company in a better way it is important to conduct the SWOT and PESTLE analysis of the company. SWOT analysis: Strengths: EBay is the leading company in the field of global auctioning and many customers prefer the services of EBay for contributing to growth.(Cohen (2008)) No strong or direct competitor: there is no strong competitor of the company. Best Known Brand name: EBay is the well known brand and almost every person is aware of its services and has build up a trust on it. Offering Extra Services: EBay offers extra services to its customers by offering extra services to its customers for example Premium Seller Programs. Payment system: The payment system of EBay is also very strong so the users of the company do not find themselves cheated or insecure while shopping from this site. Best customer relationship with the management: The relationship of EBay with its customers and the management is also very good due to which EBay has various other opportunities. Weaknesses: High Fees: EBay charges high fees or say commission from the sellers which become the biggest weakness of the company.(Jureviciuos (2013)) Chances of fraudulent activities: There are large number of buyers and sellers with the EBay so the chances of fraudulent activities increase. Some of the fraudulent activities might include redistributing the stolen products or promoting the products with false advertisements.(Arias (2014)) Technical difficulties with payment gateway: It is possible some times that the payment brand which is associated with EBay might face some technical difficulties. Little advertising and marketing: EBay involves itself rarely in to any kind of marketing and advertisement of its products. Failure in many foreign countries: EBay is not very successful any many of the foreign countries which counts to be its weakness. Opportunities: Increase services portfolio through acquisition: There are many companies which have been acquired by the EBay so that it can increase the portfolio of its services with the help of mergers and acquisitions. Open more online stores: EBay shall open more online stores in various countries to become a leader in the global market. Growing number of mobile shoppers: There is a huge growth opportunity for EBay because the number of mobile shoppers is increasing day by day and users find it convenient to shop online rather than visiting the stores.(Ali (2014)) Threats: Online Security: There are various personal information of the consumers stored by the PayPal like bank details which might become the target for various thefts.(Trefis (2014)) Increasing competition: The competition for EBay is increasing from various other sites like Amazon as Amazon is giving tough competition to EBay. PESTLE Analysis: PESTLE analysis is one of the important tools for analyzing the external environmental factors affecting the organization: Political Factors: Political Developments: The various political developments influence EBay and the changing policies of the various countries might affect the company to a large extent. Globalization: Globalization affects the company positively. Due to globalization the company can expand internationally and can find new markets. Government Policies: There are various government policies which may be in interest of the business.(Li (2011)) Regulations: Various regulations may be passed which helps the organization to ensure some point of security but might increase the costs for the business. Economic Factors: Taxation: Taxation affects EBay in two ways. Firstly the profits of the company may be highly taxed secondly if more and more taxes will be introduced then it can seriously damage EBay. Economic Situations: Various economic situations impact the performance of the business. Exchange Rates: Instability in the exchange rate in future can have devastating effects on the online shopping. Social Factors: Lifestyle Trends: Integration of the internet in future will affect EBay positively. Brand Image: The brand Image of(Vakil (2012)) the company might suffer in future due to increasing competition and it might affect EBay. Technological Factors: In order to be competitive in this environment the business must keep on changing its technology from time to time. Change in distribution channels: There are lots many changes in the distribution channels as EBay can sell products worldwide. Competitive Analysis: One of the important tools to analyze the external competitive environment of any industry is the Porters Five Forces Model. Threat of Entry: EBay is the internet driven industry and there are lot of barriers to entry. One of the main barriers in entering new markets could be that some of the products are not permitted to enter some states. So, the main barrier includes the regulations and intervention of the government. (Calloway (2013))Various blocks have been established by EBay that takes care of the legislation. Threat of Rivalry: There are many competitors of eBay like Yahoo! Auctions, Overstock.com and Google. (Jackson (2004))There have been various fights with eBay from its rivals. The drop off industry is also one of the biggest competitors of the industry. EBay leaves no room unattended to provide quality services to its customers at lowest possible prices. Threat of Suppliers: There are millions of user of eBay so there are chances that many suppliers join eBay for selling their products but the ultimate suppliers truth is not known as there are too many suppliers o company cannot take guarantee as to who is the best supplier. (Fleisher Bensoussan (2015))The company brings together the buyer and the supplier and the supplier do not have much power in the case of the transactions. In order to provide smooth and quick payments eBay has introduced PayPal. But it becomes very expensive to sell the expensive products through PayPal. Threat of Buyers: eBay becomes profitable and powerful due to lot many numbers of buyers dealing with the site. Any item which is listed on the eBay can be seen or bought by the buyers. (Besanko Shanley (2009))Moreover the eBay supports its customers in every possible aspect. Due to which the bad sellers and buyers are decreased to a large extent from the user list of eBay. So, here it can be concluded that the buyers of the eBay do not have much influence unless they are dealing with expensive items. Threat of Substitutes: for the products which are traded online have few substitutes. One option that is available for the buyers is to go back to the Auction house and the other option could be selling the products directly instead of auctioning them. Internal Analysis Strategic Capabilities 4.1. Under this head the strategic capabilities of eBay has been discussed to provide competitive advantage to the company. The strategic capabilities of a firm will be directed and evaluated by its various plans and objectives which further help the firm in taking the competitive advantage by using its resources over a period of time and satisfying its customers. (Pride (2008))For strategic capabilities a well devised plan can be used to achieve the various goals of the company which further offers a suitable solution for handling the important issues which are related to the firm. Implementing a management is required to analysis the strategic capabilities of the firm and hence that plan can be used to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization and can further help in increasing the profitability of the organization. (William. (2004))There are basic as well as unique resources of eBay which are as follows: Basic Resources: Offices and facilities Appropriate personnel IT server platform Account management Sufficient customers and suppliers Competent customers and suppliers ICT skills that are sophisticated Unique Resources: The eBay Brand First mover advantage Vocal and active community of users Learning from experience Electronic platform for managing skills Leadership Web 2.0 management skills Partnering the internet Business Functions of the company: Collections: There are different groups of products which are collected as well as sold by various sellers. Follow: The eBay feed can be personalized by following selected collections, users and interests. Profiles: There is a new page for the sellers and the buyers which can be customized individually. Personal information is shared here. EBay Today: There is a new page which presents the daily selection of the goods that are made by eBays chief curator. Basis of Competitive Strategy Key market segments targeted within eBay: Target market has different characteristics like geographic, behavioral, and demographic. Geographic: The geographic target market can be the consumers in city, country or state. This becomes very important when it comes to international marketing. Ebay targets every country, city and state. Demographic: The demographic focuses on specific age, gender, income level or education level. In the above case of eBay there are various products of different age groups, gender and income level people. Any user can purchase any product of their choice from the site. Analysis of business strategy Cost leadership strategy: To improve the buyers experience and enhance the products and services eBay has planned to expand its market places to focus on different customers. Focus Strategies: The management of eBay seeks to become the number one online payment solution. Differentiation Strategy: It has planned to offer variety of products to its customers to gain competitive advantage. Strategic Choice: The two important factors are defined by the Ansoff Matrix which are what is sold and who it is sold to, therefore there are four alternative courses of actions in the matrix which are: Diversification strategies Product development strategies Market penetration strategies Market development strategies Market penetration: eBay is very successful on the World Wide Web. The strategic direction is market penetration for eBay, which has its main aim to increase the market share in the existing market with the same products. The company focuses on making improvements in its product so that the reputation of the company can further be improved. EBay further focuses on the improvement of services by the use of high-tech information system and updated applications which further helps in gaining more customers by improving the quality of its products. Diversification: The name given to the growth strategy is diversification where new products are marketed by the business in the market. This strategy involves more risks as compared to other strategies. Market Development: Under this strategy existing products are sold by the business to the new market it can be through new geographical markets, packaging, new distribution channels and different pricing policies. Product development: Under this strategy new products are introduced in the market here development of new techniques and competencies are required so that the product becomes more appealing. Strategic Evaluation: The most appropriate option for the eBay is market penetration as the company is quite successful on the internet and the main aim of ebay is to increase its market share so it can improve its current products so that it can achieve this aim. Suitability: The particular decision can be said to be effective after testing the suitability with the plans of the organization. It becomes essential to check whether the particular option make the proper use of the strengths and avoids the weaknesses of the organization.(Hosskison (2008)) Feasibility: This question can be answered if the option can be carried out and it would help in achieving the required results. Acceptability: This point takes in to consideration if the selected option will cause any crises with the stakeholders. Market penetration can be best if it does not cause any crises to the stakeholders of eBay. Conclusion and Recommendations: By the analysis of the overall report of eBay it can be concluded that though eBay is a pioneer in the online marketing but there are few issues which disturbs it working and eBay shall from time to time look into these matters to handle the situation. It can further be concluded that the company is making every effort to capitalize its strengths efficiently from time to time by making different strategic choices when ever required. The main weakness that the company is facing at the moment as compared to its competitors is it totally relies on the technology and the technology is not always in favour there are times when the technology failures gives worst results. Yes, the company is taking different measures to manage its threats effectively though sometimes there are few contradictions between the strategic choices made by the company and its vision. References Ali, F (2014), Prezi, viewed 27 March (2016), https://prezi.com/fvczpqbs0sou/ebay-swot-analysis-26th-march-2014/. Arias, M (2014), , viewed 27 March (2016), https://prezi.com/9edvvizfviev/ebay-case-analysis/. Besanko, D Shanley, M (2009), Economics of Strategy, 5th edn, John Wiley and Sons. Calloway, M (2013), Prezi, viewed 27 March (2016), https://prezi.com/kcnuakc2lyjs/ebay-case-study/. Cohen, A (2008), The Perfect Store: Inside eBay, Hachette., New York. Fleisher, C Bensoussan, B (2015), Business and Competitive Analysis: Effective Application, 2nd edn, Paul Boger. Hodsgon, P (2014), Fortune, viewed 27 March (2016), https://fortune.com/2014/03/21/the-real-problem-at-ebay-corporate-governance/. Hosskison, M (2008), Understanding Business Strategy: Concepts and Cases, New York. Jackson, E (2004), The PayPal Wars: Battles with EBay, the Media, World Ahead Publishing,Inc. (2004), USA. Jureviciuos, O (2013), Startegic Management Insight, viewed 27 March (2016), https://www.strategicmanagementinsight.com/swot-analyses/ebay-swot-analysis.html. Li, X (2011), , viewed 27 March (2016), https://www.scribd.com/doc/67570542/EBAY-Five-Force#scribd. Luthge, M (2004), Strategic Analysis of eBay - Page 4, grin. Pride, W (2008), Marketing Express - Page 27. Trefis (2014), Forbes, viewed 27 March (2016), https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2014/11/24/ebay-through-the-lens-of-porters-five-forces/#36d06ce12179. (2015), Forbes, viewed 27 March (2016), https://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2015/06/04/key-challenges-besetting-ebays-marketplaces-segment/#6ef6db6e1c50. Vakil, B (2012), , viewed 27 March (2016), https://business.wikinut.com/External-environment-of-EBay-within-the-framework-of-Porters-Five-Force-analysis/15qyvbgr/. , P (2004), Marketing - Page 31, Routledge(2004), New York.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Origin Of Solar System Essays - Planetary Science, Solar System

Origin Of Solar System The Origin of the Solar System One of the most intriguing questions in astronomy today is the how our solar system formed. Not only does the answer add insight to other similarly forming systems, but also helps to satisfy our curiosity about the origin of our species. Although it is highly unlikely that astronomers will ever know with absolute scientific certainty how our system originated, they can construct similar theoretical models with the hopes gaining a better understanding. A basic understand of the current physical aspects of our solar system are helpful when trying to analyzing its origin. Our solar system is made of the Sun, nine major planets, at least sixty planetary satellite, thousands of asteroids and comets that all span an immense distance. Each planet has its own individual characteristics and seven of which have one or more satellites. There are thousands of asteroids, mainly congested in the area between Mars and Jupiter, as well as countless comets that all trav el in a spherical orbit around our Sun. The Sun contains approximately 99 percent of the mass in the solar system, but only 2 percent of the system's angular momentum. It lies in the center of our system while all planets, asteroids and alike rotate in elliptical orbits around it in the same plane. The smaller inner planets have solid surfaces, lack ring systems and have far fewer satellites then the outer planets. Atmospheres of most of the inner planets consist of large quantities of oxidized compounds such as carbon dioxide. While on the other hand, the outer planets are far more massive then the inner terrestrial planets, and have gigantic atmospheres composed mainly of hydrogen and helium. Asteroids and comets make up the smallest portion of the solar systems entities and are composed of the remnants left behind while planets were forming. For over 300 years, there has been a very long history of conjecture on the origin of the solar system. These many theories stem from two ge neral categories. The first category called monistic, involves the evolution of the Sun and planets as an isolated system. The second group of theories called dualistic, suggested that the solar system formed as a result of the interaction between two individual stars. The dualistic formation theory has been almost entirely dropped and monistic formation has become the general consensus on the basic formation of our solar system. Most modern theories of the origin of the solar system hypothesize that all bodies in the solar system, including the sun accreted from the formation and evolution of a single primordial solar nebula. It is believed that our solar system began to form around 4.56 billion years ago from a dense interstellar cloud of gas. Because of the conservation of angular momentum, the cloud of gas formed a rotating flattened disk approximately the size of the planetary system. It was this flattened disk that is referred to as the primitive solar nebula and from which ou r current solar system evolved. Ordinarily, the internal pressures of the cloud are sufficient to prevent if form collapsing. However, from time to time local increases in pressure of the interstellar medium cause the additional compression of interstellar clouds. These compressions caused the clouds to reach their threshold of gravitational collapse. Once the gravitational attraction of matter is greater then any tendency to expand due to internal pressures the cloud begins to collapse inward. Theoretical models suggest that the presolar nebula continued to collapse until the center of the cloud became so dense that heat started to form. This heat increased the thermal pressure of the cloud until the collapse was eventually halted. The existence of our system of planets is entirely due to the angular momentum of the initial cloud. If there were no angular momentum, then the interstellar cloud would have collapsed to from a single star. While at the same time, if the collapse had oc curred under a system with too much angular momentum then a binary star would have resulted from our system. Our system formed under intermediate conditions allowing the planets to evolve. The fact that the Sun contains 99 percent of the solar system's mass but only 2 percent